THE WORLD'S LARGEST WEB DEVELOPER SITE

## Python Tutorial

Python HOME Python Intro Python Get Started Python Syntax Python Comments Python Variables Python Data Types Python Numbers Python Casting Python Strings Python Booleans Python Operators Python Lists Python Tuples Python Sets Python Dictionaries Python If...Else Python While Loops Python For Loops Python Functions Python Lambda Python Arrays Python Classes/Objects Python Inheritance Python Iterators Python Scope Python Modules Python Dates Python JSON Python RegEx Python PIP Python Try...Except Python User Input Python String Formatting

## File Handling

Python File Handling Python Read Files Python Write/Create Files Python Delete Files

## Machine Learning

Getting Started Mean Median Mode Standard Deviation Percentile Data Distribution Normal Data Distribution Scatter Plot Linear Regression Polynomial Regression Multiple Regression Scale Train/Test Decision Tree

## Python MySQL

MySQL Get Started MySQL Create Database MySQL Create Table MySQL Insert MySQL Select MySQL Where MySQL Order By MySQL Delete MySQL Drop Table MySQL Update MySQL Limit MySQL Join

## Python MongoDB

MongoDB Get Started MongoDB Create Database MongoDB Create Collection MongoDB Insert MongoDB Find MongoDB Query MongoDB Sort MongoDB Delete MongoDB Drop Collection MongoDB Update MongoDB Limit

## Python Reference

Python Overview Python Built-in Functions Python String Methods Python List Methods Python Dictionary Methods Python Tuple Methods Python Set Methods Python File Methods Python Keywords

## Module Reference

Random Module Requests Module

## Python How To

Remove List Duplicates Reverse a String

## Python Examples

Python Examples Python Exercises Python Quiz Python Certificate

# Python If ... Else

## Python Conditions and If statements

Python supports the usual logical conditions from mathematics:

• Equals: a == b
• Not Equals: a != b
• Less than: a < b
• Less than or equal to: a <= b
• Greater than: a > b
• Greater than or equal to: a >= b

These conditions can be used in several ways, most commonly in "if statements" and loops.

An "if statement" is written by using the if keyword.

### Example

If statement:

a = 33
b = 200
if b > a:
print("b is greater than a")
Run example »

In this example we use two variables, a and b, which are used as part of the if statement to test whether b is greater than a. As a is 33, and b is 200, we know that 200 is greater than 33, and so we print to screen that "b is greater than a".

## Indentation

Python relies on indentation (whitespace at the beginning of a line) to define scope in the code. Other programming languages often use curly-brackets for this purpose.

### Example

If statement, without indentation (will raise an error):

a = 33
b = 200
if b > a:
print("b is greater than a") # you will get an error
Run example »

## Elif

The elif keyword is pythons way of saying "if the previous conditions were not true, then try this condition".

### Example

a = 33
b = 33
if b > a:
print("b is greater than a")
elif a == b:
print("a and b are equal")
Run example »

In this example a is equal to b, so the first condition is not true, but the elif condition is true, so we print to screen that "a and b are equal".

## Else

The else keyword catches anything which isn't caught by the preceding conditions.

### Example

a = 200
b = 33
if b > a:
print("b is greater than a")
elif a == b:
print("a and b are equal")
else:
print("a is greater than b")
Run example »

In this example a is greater than b, so the first condition is not true, also the elif condition is not true, so we go to the else condition and print to screen that "a is greater than b".

You can also have an `else` without the `elif`:

### Example

a = 200
b = 33
if b > a:
print("b is greater than a")
else:
print("b is not greater than a")
Run example »

## Short Hand If

If you have only one statement to execute, you can put it on the same line as the if statement.

### Example

One line if statement:

if a > b: print("a is greater than b")
Run example »

## Short Hand If ... Else

If you have only one statement to execute, one for if, and one for else, you can put it all on the same line:

### Example

One line if else statement:

a = 2
b = 330
print("A") if a > b else print("B")
Run example »

You can also have multiple else statements on the same line:

### Example

One line if else statement, with 3 conditions:

a = 330
b = 330
print("A") if a > b else print("=") if a == b else print("B")
Run example »

## And

The and keyword is a logical operator, and is used to combine conditional statements:

### Example

Test if `a` is greater than `b`, AND if `c` is greater than `a`:

a = 200
b = 33
c = 500
if a > b and c > a:
print("Both conditions are True")
Run example »

## Or

The `or` keyword is a logical operator, and is used to combine conditional statements:

### Example

Test if `a` is greater than `b`, OR if `a` is greater than `c`:

a = 200
b = 33
c = 500
if a > b or a > c:
print("At least one of the conditions is True")
Run example »

## Nested If

You can have `if` statements inside `if` statements, this is called nested `if` statements.

### Example

x = 41

if x > 10:
print("Above ten,")
if x > 20:
print("and also above 20!")
else:
print("but not above 20.")
Run example »

## The pass Statement

`if` statements cannot be empty, but if you for some reason have an `if` statement with no content, put in the `pass` statement to avoid getting an error.

a = 33
b = 200

if b > a:
pass
Run example »

## Exercise:

Print "Hello World if `a` is greater than `b`.

```a = 50
b = 10
a  b
print("Hello World")
```

Start the Exercise