alias

Assign a string to be recognized as a different one. Often used with a command.

cal

Displays the calendar in standard output with extra information.

cat

Concatenate files into a new file.

cd

Changes current directory to another one.

chmod

Modify the read, write, and execute priveleges of files for users and groups.

chown

Change ownership information of files.

comm

Compare two sorted files line by line.

cp

Copies the content in a file to another new file.

crontab

Schedule tasks or operations to run at given times.

cut

Remove sections of each line of a file.

date

display current date and time.

diff

analyzes two files and prints the lines that are different.

df

Shows amount of disk space being used by the machine's file systems.

dmesg

Troubleshooting tool for driver and hardware issues.

du

Shows disk usage by specific files and directories and files.

echo

display line of text.

exit

causes shell to exit and close.

fdisk

Used to create, edit, delete, or move partitions on a hard drive.

find

Searches for files throughout the directory tree based on certain commands.

gzip

Compress and archive files, similar to windows zip.

grep

Search a file for keywords and return the line in which it appears in the file.

head

Prints the first few lines of a file out to standard input.

history

Lists up to the 1000 most recent commands executed in the terminal.

ifconfig

Used to view network and configuration information like IP and MAC addresses.

ls

Lists out names and relevant information about files in a directory.

logout

logout from current user session.

man

Manual pages, verbose descriptions of UNIX commands and how to use them.

mkdir

Creates a new directory.

mount

Make particular file system accessible at a certain point in the directory tree.

mv

Move a file to another directory.

nslookup

Troubleshooter for DNS related information.

paste

join files horizontally.

ping

Checks an IP address for network connectivity.

pwd

Writes full pathname of current working directory.

rmdir

Deletes a directory.

rsync

Remote backup/data synchronization tool.

scp

Copy files securely over SSH.

set

Create or change a variable in the shell/environment with a value.

sftp

Utilize secure file transfer protocol on a server.

shred

Deletes files.

sort

Sorts text line by line. Many kinds of sorts.

source

evaluates file as a list of commands executed in the current context.

ssh

Utilize secure shell network protocol to gain secure access to a server.

su

Switch to another user or run commands as another user.

sudo

Run commands as the SuperUser.

tail

Prints the last few lines of a file.

tar

Rip collection of files and directories into a compressed archive.

touch

Creates new empty file in the current directory.

traceroute

Trace the path of a packet from its genesis to its final destination.

unset

Delete an existing shell/environment variable.

vi

Text editor built into UNIX.

wc

Counts lines, words, and characters in a file.

wget

A command line utility used to download files from servers on the internet.

which

Locates pathnames of the files that would be run by the shell if given a command.

who

Shows which user(s) are currently logged in on the machine.